## The radix-2 Cooley-Tukey FFT Algorithm with Decimation in Time

April 30, 2009

EDIT May 29th 2009: The code presented in this post has a major bug in the calculation of inverse DFTs using the FFT algorithm. Some explanation can be found here, and fixed code can be found here.

Once the DFT has been introduced, it is time to start computing it efficiently. Focusing on the direct transform,

$\displaystyle X_k = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1}{x_n e^{-2\pi i k n / N}},$

if the size of the input is even, we can write N = 2·M and it is possible to split the N element summation in the previous formula into two M element ones, one over n = 2·m, another over n = 2·m + 1. By doing so, after some cancellations in the exponents we arrive at

$\displaystyle X_k = \sum_{m=0}^{M-1}{x_{2m} e^{-2\pi i \frac{m k}{M} }} + e^{-2\pi i\frac{k}{N}} \sum_{m=0}^{M-1}{x_{2m+1} e^{-2\pi i\frac{m k}{M}}}.$

There’s something very promising here: each of the two summations are very close to being the expression of a DFT of half the size of the original. The only thing preventing them from fully being so is the fact that k runs from 0 to N-1, rather than up to M-1 only. To get around this, we will consider two different cases: k < M and k ≥ M. The first trivially produces a pair of half sized DFTs, which we will term Ek and Ok, owing to one running over the even indexes, the other over the odd ones:

$\displaystyle E_k = \sum_{m=0}^{M-1}{x_{2m} e^{-2\pi i \frac{m k}{M} }}, O_k = \sum_{m=0}^{M-1}{x_{2m+1} e^{-2\pi i \frac{m k}{M} }}$.

As for the case k ≥ M, we may as well write it out as k = M + k’. And if we plug this value into the original formula, work a little with the algebra, and then undo the variable change, i.e. plug k’ = M – k back in, we arrive at the following combined formula,

$X_k = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} E_k + e^{-2\pi i \frac{k}{N}} O_k & \mbox{if } k < M \\ E_{k-M} - e^{-2\pi i\frac{k-M}{N}} O_{k-M} & \mbox{if } k \geq M \end{array} \right.$.

The cool thing about this decomposition is that we have turned our N element DFT into two N/2 DFTs, plus some overhead composing the results, which includes calculating twiddle factors, i.e. the complex exponential multiplying the O’s in the last formula. Given the quadratic nature of the time required to calculate the DFT, this amounts to cutting the time in half. And the best part is that we need not stop after one such decomposition: if the original size is a power of two, we can keep doing the same trick recursively until we reach a DFT of only two elements, for which we already have produced explicit formulas. A similar approach can be used for the inverse DFT, the details are built into the following code…

from __future__ import division
import math
import time

def fft_CT(x, inverse = False, verbose = False) :
"""
Computes the DFT of x using Cooley-Tukey's FFT algorithm.
"""
t = time.clock()
N = len(x)
inv = -1 if not inverse else 1
if N % 2 :
return dft(x, inverse, False)
x_e = x[::2]
x_o  = x[1::2]
X_e = fft_CT(x_e, inverse, False)
X_o  = fft_CT(x_o, inverse, False)
X = []
M = N // 2
for k in range(M) :
X += [X_e[k] + X_o[k] * math.e ** (inv * 2j * math.pi * k / N)]
for k in range(M,N) :
X += [X_e[k-M] - X_o[k-M] * math.e ** (inv * 2j * math.pi * (k-M) / N)]
if inverse :
X = [j/2 for j in X]
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Computed","an inverse" if inverse else "a","CT FFT of size",N,
print "in",t,"sec."
return X


The speed gain with this approach, restricted for now to power of two sizes, are tremendous even for moderately large input sizes. Mostly so due to the fact the new algorithm scales as N log N. For instance, a 220 (~106) item input can be processed with the FFT approach in a couple of minutes, while the projected duration using the naive DFT will be more like a couple of weeks…

Twiddle Factors Again
While it may not be immediately obvious, the previous code is generously wasting resources by calculating over and over again the same twiddle factors. Imagine, for instance, a 1024 element DFT computed using this algorithm. At some point in the recursion the original DFT will have been exploded into 64 DFTs of 16 elements each. Each of this 64 DFTs must then be composed with the exact same 8 different twiddle factors, but right now they are being calculated from scratch each of the 64 times. Furthermore, half of this 8 different twiddle factors are the same that where needed to compose the 128 DFTs of 8 elements into the 64 DFTs of 16 elements… Summing it all up, to compute a FFT of size 2n, which requires the calculation of 2n-1 different twiddle factors, we are calculating as many as n·2n-1 of them.

We can easily work around this by precalculating them first, and then passing the list to other functions. For instance as follows…

def fft_CT_twiddles(x, inverse = False, verbose = False, twiddles = None) :
"""
Computes the DFT of x using Cooley-Tukey's FFT algorithm. Twiddle factors
are precalculated in the first function call, then passed down recursively.
"""
t = time.clock()
N = len(x)
inv = -1 if not inverse else 1
if N % 2 :
return dft(x, inverse, False)
M = N // 2
if not twiddles :
twiddles = [math.e**(inv*2j*math.pi*k/N) for k in xrange(M)]+[N]
x_e = x[::2]
x_o  = x[1::2]
X_e = fft_CT_twiddles(x_e, inverse, False, twiddles)
X_o  = fft_CT_twiddles(x_o, inverse, False, twiddles)
X = []
for k in range(M) :
X += [X_e[k] + X_o[k] * twiddles[k * twiddles[-1] // N]]
for k in range(M,N) :
X += [X_e[k-M] - X_o[k-M] * twiddles[(k - M) * twiddles[-1] // N]]
if inverse :
X = [j/2 for j in X]
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Computed","an inverse" if inverse else "a","CT FFT of size",N,
print "in",t,"sec."
return X


This additional optimization does not improve the time scaling of the algorithm, but reduces the calculation time to about two thirds of the original one.

## Computing the Greatest Common Divisor

April 30, 2009

Here comes my take at one of the most ubiquitous algorithms you can find googling

The least common multiple of 2 numbers, lcm(a,b), is the smallest number that is divisible by both a and b. The greatest common divisor of 2 numbers, gcd(a,b), is the largest number that divides both a and b. But just how do you go about calculating them? A most important property is that one can be calculated from the other based on the relation lcm(a,b)·gcd(a,b) = a·b, which ends up meaning that in practice the gcd is always calculated first. But lets not get ahead of ourselves…

Brute Force
I will disregard the dumber brute force approaches, such as “to get gcd(a,b), try all numbers down from min(a,b), until you find one that divides both a and b”, but a very resource wasteful implementation could use a sieving approach for the lcm. See, the lcm has to be smaller than a·b, which is definitely a multiple of both a and b. So if we set up an array of zeros of size a·b, we could use sieving to first set all multiples of a to 1, then do a search over all multiples of b to find the first common multiple. This approach will definitely break down for even moderately large a or b, but it is probably as good as most of us would get on our own without wikipedia…

from time import clock

def lcmBruteForce(a, b, verbose = False) :
t = clock()
sieve = [0]*a*b
a,b = max(a,b), min(a,b)
for j in range(a-1,a*b,a) :
sieve[j] += 1
ret = 0
for j in range(b-1,a*b,b) :
if sieve[j] == 1 :
ret = j + 1
break
t = clock()-t
if verbose :
print "Calculated the lcm of",a,"and",b,"in",t,"sec."
return ret


Integer Factorization
In my case I believe it was Ernesto, back in 1985 or 1986, who showed me into the secret of calculating the lcm and the gcd from the prime factorization of both numbers:

• to find the gcd, keep only factors common to both and b, raised to the smaller exponent, and
• for the lcm, keep all factors, common or not, raised to the largest exponent.

This approach will prove to be very inefficient, but lets give it a go. We will reuse the factorAndSieve function from the post on integer factorization. I have also written an auxiliary function, listToDict, that turns the list of factors with repeating entries, into a dictionary, where keys are factors and corresponding entries are exponents:

import time

def list_to_dict(seq) :
ret = dict()
for j in seq :
if j in ret :
ret[j] += 1
else :
ret[j] = 1
return ret

def gcd_factor(a, b, verbose = False) :
t = time.clock()
aa = list_to_dict(factorAndSieve(a))
bb = list_to_dict(factorAndSieve(b))
rr = dict()
for j in bb :
if j in aa :
rr[j] = min(aa[j], bb[j])
ret = 1
for j in rr :
ret *= j**rr[j]
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Calculated the gcd of",a,"and",b,"in",t,"sec."
return ret


The Euclidean Algorithm
When we looked at the calculation of the modular multiplicative inverse, we already took a look at the extended Euclidean algorithm, and pointed out it gives the gcd of the two passed numbers as a by-product. Not that it was an interesting thing then, since when calculating multiplicative inverses, we normally are interested in relatively prime number pairs, i.e. gcd(a,b) = 1. But if the adjective extended is dropped from the name, we are left with the Euclidean algorithm, which is the standard to calculate the gcd.

The basic idea behind the algorithm is the observation that if a > b, and g is the gcd of a and b, then it is also the gcd of a – b and b. To make it more efficient, rather than subtracting, we can cut corners by using the equivalent fact that, if g is the gcd of a and b, then it is also the gcd of b and a mod b. If we perform that same operation recursively, after a finite number of iterations, the result of the modular operation will eventually reach zero, and the gcd then is equal to the last non-zero remainder. Or

import time

def gcd_euclid(a, b, verbose = False) :
t = time.clock()
aa, bb = a,b
while b != 0 :
a, b = b, a%b
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Calculated the gcd of",aa,"and",bb,"in",t,"sec."
return a


The Binary GCD Algorithm
Euclid’s algorithm is so fast that there really is not much point in trying to improve it. If we were using C rather than python, we could have taken advantage of the fact that a computer that does all its arithmetic in binary, and use the binary GCD algorithm. In python the resulting code is less clear, and the run times are slightly slower, probably owing to the fact that bitwise operations “don’t get optimized down to single CPU instructions (…) like in C,” or so says a commenter here… The truth is I haven’t been able to implement the algorithm so that it runs faster than the standard Euclidean one, so I’ll spare you my code…

## The Discrete Fourier Transform

April 30, 2009

I’m currently a little fed up with number theory, so its time to change topics completely. Specially since the post on basic integer factorization completes what I believe is a sufficient toolkit to tackle a very cool subject: the fast Fourier transform (FFT).

I have some mixed feelings about how does Fourier analysis qualify for the “uncomplicated complexity” rule I imposed on myself when starting this blog. There certainly is a lot of very elaborate math behind it, but I think that if you skip all the mathematical subtleties and dive head first into a “the Fourier transform gives you the frequencies present in the signal” type of intuitive description, the journey from the more naive implementations of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to the many flavors of the FFT is a very enjoyable one, which requires only a limited amount of complication, but gentle doses of complexity. Which is exactly what I’m after…

So I will take the definition of the DFT for granted, and concentrate on the algorithms to compute it efficiently. There will have to be a few leaps of faith, but I will try to mark them clearly, so you can whisper “amen” and keep going without a second thought. Although things may unfold differently, I think there is material for about half a dozen posts. Towards the end I may devote some time to optimizing the code, with things such as avoiding recursion, or doing the calculations in place, but be warned that most of my efforts will be devoted to optimizing the math behind the code, not the code itself.

The Discrete Fourier Transform
Without further explanation, we will begin by writing down the analytical expression of the DFT,

$\displaystyle X_k = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1}{x_n e^{-2\pi i k n / N}},$

and of its corresponding inverse transform,

$\displaystyle x_n =\frac{1}{N} \sum_{k=0}^{N-1}{X_k e^{2\pi i k n / N}}.$

With the built-in support for complex arithmetic, there really isn’t much mistery in turning these two formulas into python functions, or as I have chosen, one with an inverse switch:

from __future__ import division
import math
import time

def dft(x, inverse = False, verbose = False) :
t = time.clock()
N = len(x)
inv = -1 if not inverse else 1
X =[0] * N
for k in xrange(N) :
for n in xrange(N) :
X[k] += x[n] * math.e**(inv * 2j * math.pi * k * n / N)
if inverse :
X[k] /= N
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Computed","an inverse" if inverse else "a","DFT of size",N,
print "in",t,"sec."
return X


Of course, having two nested loops of the size of the input means that computation time will grow with N2, which is extremely inefficient.

Twiddle Factors
Apart from the FFT algorithms we will start with in the next post, there are some pretty straightforward optimizations at hand. While some texts reserve the name for similar factors appearing in FFT algorithms, the complex exponentials coming up in the DFT formula are often known as twiddle factors. While in principle there are N2 of them to calculate, we can take advantage of the fact that

$\displaystyle e^{\varphi i} = \cos \varphi + i \sin \varphi$,

and owing to the periodic nature of trigonometric functions, it isn’t hard to see that n·k can be replaced by n·k mod N without altering the result, which means only N different ones do exist.

A python implementation with pre-calculated twiddle factors could look something like this…

from __future__ import division
import math
import time

def dft(x, inverse = False, verbose = False) :
t = time.clock()
N = len(x)
inv = -1 if not inverse else 1
twiddles = [math.e**(inv*2j*math.pi*k/N) for k in xrange(N)]
X =[0] * N
for k in xrange(N) :
for n in xrange(N) :
X[k] += x[n] * twiddles[n * k % N]
if inverse :
X[k] /= N
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Computed","an inverse" if inverse else "a","DFT of size",N,
print "in",t,"sec."
return X


On my machine this code is about 5 times faster than the original one, although it still scales with time as N2, so we are only postponing the inevitable. Do notice as well that the increase in speed comes at the cost of an additional array of complex of size N memory requirement.

Particular Cases
Without being touched with insightful inspiration, the only other route to optimization is by working out the math on paper for particular cases, and code explicitly the resulting formulas to avoid doing costly exponentiations.

As examples, if N = 2, it is easy to show, that

$\displaystyle X_0 = x_0 + x_1, \\ X_1 = x_0 - x_1,$

and if N = 4, one can similarly arrive at

$\displaystyle X_0 = x_0 + x_1 + x_2 + x_3, \\ X_1 = x_0 - x_2 - i (x_1 - x_3), \\ X_2 = x_0 + x_2 - (x_1+x_3), \\ X_3 = x_0 - x_2 + i (x_1 - x_3).$

Adding these particular cases to the python code could be done as follows…

def dft(x, inverse = False, verbose = False) :
t = time.clock()
N = len(x)
X =[0] * N
inv = -1 if not inverse else 1
if N == 1 :
X[0] = x[0]
elif N == 2 :
X[0] = x[0] + x[1]
X[1] = x[0] - x[1]
elif N == 4 :
a = x[0] + x[2]
b = x[0] - x[2]
c = x[1] + x[3]
d = x[1] - x[3]
X[0] = a + c
X[1] = b + inv * 1j * d
X[2] = a - c
X[3] = b - inv * 1j * d
if inverse :
X = [k/N for k in X]
else :
twiddles = [math.e**(inv*2j*math.pi*k/N) for k in xrange(N//2+1)]
for k in xrange(N//2+1,N) :
twiddles += [twiddles[N-k].conjugate()]
for k in xrange(N) :
for n in xrange(N) :
X[k] += x[n] * twiddles[n * k % N]
if inverse :
X[k] /= N
t = time.clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Computed","an inverse" if inverse else "a","DFT of size",N,
print "in",t,"sec."
return X


Overall, and for this particular cases only, an additional factor of 3 increase in speed is achieved in this way. But this solution is not scalable to arbitrary input sizes, and so wiser approaches are needed to tackle even moderately large inputs of few tens of thousands samples…

## Naive Integer Factorization

April 9, 2009

After three posts (1, 2, 3) on calculating prime numbers, it is probably worth putting that knowledge to a more useful task. As we will see in a near future, integer factorization, i.e. breaking down a (composite) number into its prime factors is one such task. In purity, factoring a number n is simply decomposing it as the product of two smaller non-trivial, i.e. different from 1 and n itself, divisors. But by repeatedly factoring the divisors one will eventually come up with a unique set of primes which, when multiplied together, render the original number, or so says the fundamental theorem of arithmetic… The point is, we will consider factorization a synonym of prime decomposition, be it formally correct or not.

There are some very sophisticated methods to factor very large numbers, but they use a lot of extremely complex math, so I doubt they will ever find their way onto this blog. So we are going to be left with the naive, straightforward approach as our only option, although I will try to give it an efficiency boost. What is this naive approach? Trial division, of course: given a number n, we know that its smallest factor will be smaller than the square root of n, so we can simply try and see if any of those numbers divide it. No, I will not try to code that yet… If you have read the entries on determining prime numbers, it should come as no surprise that we really do not need to do trial division by all numbers smaller than the square root of n, but only by the primes within. This is a consequence of the fact that, if a composite number divides n, then each of the prime factors of that composite number will also divide n. According to the prime number theorem the number of primes below x is asymptotic to x / log x. So by limiting our trials to prime numbers we can reduce the number of tests from n1/2 to something around 2 n1/2 / log n. If we rescue the primeListSofE function from the post on the sieve of Erathostenes, a python implementation of naive factorization could look something like this…

from time import clock

def factor(n, verbose = False) :
"""
Returns all prime factors of n, using trial division by prime
numbers only. Returns a list of (possibly repeating) prime factors
"""
t = clock()
ret =[]
nn = n
maxFactor = int(n**0.5)
primes = primeListSofE(maxFactor, verbose)
for p in primes :
while nn % p == 0 :
nn //= p
ret += [p]
if nn == 1 :
break
if nn != 1 :
ret += [nn]
t = clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Calculated factors of",n,"in",t,"sec."
return ret


While this function will be about as good as we can make it for numbers which are the product of two large prime factors, it will be terribly inefficient for most numbers. Consider, as an extreme example, that we are trying to factor 255 ~ 3.6·1016. We would first calculate all primes up to 1.9·108, a challenging feat in itself with our available tools, only to find out that we only needed the first of those primes, i.e. 2. Taking into account that 50% of all numbers are divisible by 2, 33% are divisible by 3, 20% are divisible by 5… it doesn’t seem wise to disregard the potential time savings. What we can do to profit from this is to do the trial division checks at the same time as we determine the prime numbers, updating the largest prime to test on the fly. This has to be done in two stages, the first while we sieve up to n1/4, the second while we search the rest of the sieve up to n1/2 searching for more primes. The following Franken-code has been written mostly by cut-and-paste from primeListSofE and factor, which hopefully hasn’t affected its readability much:

from time import clock

def factorAndSieve(n, verbose = False) :
"""
Returns all prime factors of n, using trial division while sieving
for primes. Returns a list of (possibly repeating) prime factors
"""
t = clock()
ret =[]
nn = n
while nn % 2 == 0 : # remove 2's first, as 2 is not in sieve
nn //= 2
ret += [2]
maxFactor = int(nn**0.5)
maxI = (maxFactor-3) // 2
maxP = int(maxFactor**0.5)
sieve = [True for j in xrange(maxI+1)]
i = 0
for p in xrange(3, maxP+1,2) : # we then sieve as far as needed
if p > maxP :
break
i = (p-3) // 2
if sieve[i] :
while nn % p == 0 :
nn //= p
ret += [p]
maxFactor = int(nn**0.5)
maxI = (maxFactor-3) // 2
maxP = int(maxFactor**0.5)
if nn == 1 :
break
else :
i2 = (p*p - 3) // 2
for k in xrange(i2, maxI+1, p) :
sieve[k] = False
index = i
for i in xrange(index, maxI+1) : # and inspect the rest of the sieve
if i > maxI :
break
if sieve[i] :
p = 2*i + 3
while nn % p == 0 :
nn //= p
ret += [p]
maxFactor = int(nn**0.5)
maxI = (maxFactor-3) // 2
maxP = int(maxFactor**0.5)
if nn == 1 :
break
if nn != 1 :
ret += [nn]
t = clock() - t
if verbose :
print "Calculated factors of",n,"in",t,"sec."
print "Stopped trial division at",2*i+3,"instead of",int(n**0.5)
return ret


This new code will very often be much faster than the other one, but at times it will be just about as slow as in the other case, or even slower, since the mixing of both codes introduces some inefficiencies. The most extreme examples of such cases would be a prime number, or the square of a prime number on one side, and a power of 2 on the other one.

The graph above plots times to calculate the factors of numbers between 106 and 106 + 100. Prime numbers in this interval stick out as the red dots among the blue ones: 106 +3, +33, the twin primes +37 and +39, +81 and +99. And numbers with many small prime factors populate the bottom of the red cloud.

If the above graph is not enough to convince you of the benefits of the second approach, maybe this timings for very large numbers will:

 >>> factor(10**15+37,True) Calculated primes to 31622776 in 6.760 sec. Calculated factors of 1000000000000037 in 8.466 sec. [1000000000000037L] >>> factorAndSieve(10**15+37,True) Calculated factors of 1000000000000037 in 8.666 sec. Stopped trial division at 31622775 instead of 31622776 [1000000000000037L]

 

>>> factor(2**55,True) Calculated primes to 189812531 in 42.811 sec. Calculated factors of 36028797018963968 in 43.261 sec. [2, ..., 2] >>> factorAndSieve(2**55,True) Calculated factors of 36028797018963968 in 8.632e-05 sec. Stopped trial division at 3 instead of 189812531 [2, ..., 2]